English: 

DIABETES SURVIVAL SKILLS

 

You Can Live Well With Diabetes!

 

You’ve been given this reference sheet because you have diabetes.  Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) condition.  Without treatment, it can result in serious health problems.  But you can learn to manage diabetes and live a healthier life.

 

What Is Diabetes?

 

When you eat, your food is broken down into a sugar called glucose.  Glucose gives your body energy it needs to work.  But, to use glucose as energy, your body needs insulin.  When you have diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin or use it well.  Since your body’s cells can’t use the glucose from your food as energy, the glucose stays in your blood, where it can cause health problems.  To prevent these health problems, here are some survival skills to help you learn more about Diabetes and how to take care of yourself.

 

Why Test My Blood Glucose (Sugar)?

 

1)    Testing your blood sugar with your glucometer is the first step in managing diabetes.  Your numbers (readings) show you how food, activity, stress, and medicine affect your blood sugar every day.  Your target range means your blood sugar number is not too high and not too low. For now, your target range in the morning should be 80-130 mg/dl; during the day when eating 100-180; before bed , less than 140 mg/dl.

 

If you are taking insulin shots, try to test before meals and at bedtime.

 

2)    If you are on insulin; sometimes your blood glucose can drop too low (below 70 mg/dl).

 

What Are The Symptoms?

 

Shakiness, Hunger, Sweating, Clamminess, Anxiety, Rapid Heartbeat, Chills, Light-headedness

 

What Causes Low Blood Sugar?

 

Food – Missed meal or snack, not enough food, losing weight.

 

Activity– More activity than usual.

 

Diabetes/Medicine  –  Too much insulin or diabetes medicine.

 

Alcohol – Drinking alcohol on an empty stomach

 

How Do I Treat (Low Blood Sugar) Hypoglycemia?Rule of 15’s

 

4)    Check your blood sugar to be sure you are low.

 

5)    Take 15 grams of carbohydrate (Food that change into sugar) It raises blood sugar 30-50 points.

 

Examples:

 

  • 1/2 cup juice (Orange or Apple) (Preferred)
  • ½ can of regular soda
  • 1 cup of milk
  • 1 tbsp of honey, jam, jelly
  • 3 hard candies

 

Call your doctor if your blood sugar is staying below 70 mg/dl for more than a day

 

6)    What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean?

 

  • Eating a variety of foods including vegetables, whole grains, fruits, non-fat dairy foods, healthy fats and lean meats and meat substitutes.
  • Trying not to eat too much food.
  • Trying not to eat too much of one type of food.
  • Spacing your meals evenly throughout the day.
  • Not skipping meals

 

5)    Taking Your Diabetes Medicine As Scheduled:

 

  • If you are on diabetes pills try to take them on time.
  • Insulin is a hormone that everyone has in their body.  Your doctor feels you need extra insulin to help your body work right.  Your nurse will teach you how to give yourself insulin and when.  Rotate the injection sites from your abdomen, thigh and back of arms.
  • Dispose of your needles in a hard plastic bottle and place in the trash when full.

 

6)    What To Do When You Are Sick?

 

  • Take your Diabetes medication even if you can’t eat your usual meals. If unsure; call your health provider.
  • Try to drink 6-8 oz. of sugar free liquid every hour.
  • Test your blood glucose more often – every 2 hours.
  • Call Your Doctor if your blood sugar is too high (Over 250 or higher on 2 occasions in one day).
  • A temperature over 100 degrees.

 

If you are unable to eat your usual meal plan: Try eating one of the following every 1-2 hours.

 

  • Apple sauce ½ cup
  • Regular jello ½ cup
  • Hot or cold cereal ½ cup
  • Juice ½ cup
  • Regular pudding ½ cup
  • Ice cream ½ cup

 

 

 

 

Swahili:

 

            UJUZI WA KUISHI NA UGONGWA WA KISUKARI

Unaweza Ishi Vyema Na Ugonjwa Wa Kisukari

Umepewa hii karatasi ya rejea kwa kuwa una ugongwa wa kisukari.Ugonwa wa kisukari ni hali sugu.Bila matibabu inaweza sababisha matatizo makubwa ya afya.Lakini unaweza pata mafunzo kupambana na ugongwa wa kisukari na kuishi maisha yenye afya.

Ugonjwa Wa Kisukari Ni Nini?

Unapokula,chakula chako kinavunjwa na kuwa sukari inayoitwa glukosi.Glukosi inaupa mwili wako nguvu inayohitaji kufanya kazi.Lakini,ili glukosi kutumika kama nguvu,mwili wako unahitaji insulini .Unapokuwa na ugonjwa wa kisukari ,mwili wako hautengenezi insulini ya kutosha,ama kuitumia vizuri.Kwa vile seli za mwili wako hauwezi tumia glukosi kutoka kwa chakula chako kama nguvu,glukosi inakaa kwenye damu yako ambapo unaweza leta matatizo ya afya.Ili kuzuia haya matatizo ya afya,hizi ni baadhi za ujuzi zitakazo kusaidia kujifunza mengi kuhusu ugonjwa wa kisukari na vile utajitunza.

Mbona Nipime Glukosi Wa Damu? (Sukari)

1)    Kupima sukari yako kwenye damu na glumeteri yako ni hatua ya kwanza katika usimamizi wa ugonjwa wa kisukari.Nambari yako (masomo) inakuonyesha namna chakula,shughuli,msongo na dawa inaathiri sukari kwenye damu yako kila siku.Lengo mbalimbali inamaanisha yakuwa sukari kwenye damu yako sio kubwa sana na sio chini mno.Kwa sasa, lengo lako asubuhi inapaswa kuwa 80-130mg/dl;mchana unapokula 100-180mg/dl;kabla kuelekea kitandani chini ya 140mg/dl.

Kama unatumia insulin,jaribu kupima kabla ya milo na wakati wa kulala.

2)    Kama unatumia insulinin ,wakati mwingine glukosi kwenye damu teremka chini sana (chini ya 70mg/dl)

Ni Nini Dalili?

Kutetemeka,njaa,kutokwa na jasho,ubichi wa kuwa maji maji,wasi wasi,moyo kupiga kwa haraka,baridi,kizunguzungu.

Ni Nini Kinasababisha Sukari Kwenye Damu Kushuka?

 

Chakula    – Kukosa mlo ama vitafunio.

Shughuli Kuwa na shughuli mingi kuliko kawaida.

Ugonjwa wa kisukari/Dawa – Kuwa na insulin mingi ama dawa za ugonjwa wa        kisukari

Pombe – Kukunywa pombe unapokuwa na tumbo mtupu.

Ni Jinsi Gani Naweza Tibu Upungufu Wa Sukari Kwenye Damu? Utawala wa 15’s

1)    Angalia sukari kwenye damu yako ili kuhakikisha iko chini.

2)    Kula gramu 15 ya kabohaidreti (chakula kinacho badilishwa kuwa sukari)inazidisha sukari kwenye damu kwa pointi 30-50

Mifano

  • ½ kikombe cha juisi (machungwa ama mboni) (inayopendelewa)
  • ½ chupa ya soda
  • Kikombe kimoja cha maziwa
  • Kijiko kimoja cha asali,jamu,jeli
  • Peremende 3 ngumu

Mpigie simu daktari wako kama sukari yako kwenye damu iko chini ya 70mg/dl kwa zaidi ya siku moja

3)    “Kula Kwa Afya” Unamaanisha Nini?

  • Kula aina mbalimbali ya vyakula pamoja na mboga,mbegu nzima,matunda,vyakula visivyo na mafuta ya maziwa,mafuta yenye afya,nyama iliyokonda na nyama mbadala.
  • Kujaribu kutokula chakula kingi.
  • Kujaribu kutokula chakula cha aina moja sana.
  • Wacha nafasi kwa mlo wako sawasawa katika siku
  • Kutoruka milo.

4)    Kuchukua Dawa Zako Za Ugonjwa Wa Kisukari Kama Ilivyopangwa

  • Kama unatumia dawa za ugonjwa wa kisukari jaribu kuzichukua wakati unaofaa.
  • Insulin ni homoni kila mtu anayo kwa mwili.daktari wako anahisi kuwa unahitaji insulin zaidi kusaidia mwili wako kufanya kazi vyema.Muuguzi wako atakufunza jinsi utajipa insulin mwenyewe na wakati upi.zunguka maeneo ya sindano kutoka kwa chini ya tumbo,paja na nyuma ya mkono.
  • Tupa sindano katika chupa ya plastiki ngumu na mahali kwa takataka ikiwa imejaa.

5)    Nini La Kufanya Wakati Wewe Ni Mgonjwa?

  • Tumia dawa zako za ugonjwa wa kisukari hata kama huwezi kula milo zako za kawaida. Kama huna uhakika,muite mtoa huduma wa afya wako.
  • Jaribu kunywa 6-8 oz ya maji isiyo na sukari kila saa.
  • Pima sukari yako kwenye damu yako kila mara-kilia masaa 2
  • Pigia daktari wako kama sukari yako kwenye damu iko juu zaidi(zaidi ya 250 ama zaidi kwa wakati mbili kwa siku moja).
  • Joto ikiwa juu ya digrii 100 .

Kama umeshindwa kula milo yako kulingana na mpango:jaribu kula moja ya yafuatayo kila masaa 1-2

  • ½ kikombe cha mchuzi wa mboni
  • ½ kikombe cha jelo
  • ½ kikombe cha nafaka moto ama baridi
  • Juisi ½ kikombe
  • 1/2 kikombe ya faluda
  • ½ kikombe cha aiskrimu
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